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About this collection

“‘Fruit-full’ Arkansas: Apples” is a collection of 69 items on apples assembled from a variety of collections of Arkansas folklore, souvenir booklets, poetry and other documents. Among these are 50 images of apples from color plates in historic nursery catalogs held at the Library of Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art. 

“Fruit-Full” Arkansas: Apples

Fruit-full Arkansas
Image courtesy of Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art Library.

The selections for this digital exhibit of sixty-nine items include images of apples from fifteen Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art Library books of color plates published between 1851 and 1922, as well as a railroad advertisement from 1890 enticing people to venture to “Arkansas, the world’s orchard: A fruit-full hand in Arkansas.” The array of materials from the Special Collections manuscripts and book collections includes folklore class reports, folk customs, poetry, and souvenir booklets of Bentonville and Northwest Arkansas—even a record on the production of brandy by the Swift family in 1876. The Benton County Historical Society records (qMS B45) provided the background for the history of the Arkansas apple industry. Known affectionately as “Mr. Arkansas Apple,” Dr. Roy C. Rom, University Professor Emeritus of Horticulture and a consultant for the project, provided additional materials from his personal collection.

A Concise History of the Arkansas Apple Industry

Green Apple (Photo: Roy Rom)The apple, consumed raw, cooked or as a beverage, is not native to the Americas. It was introduced by explorers and later by early settlers who planted “kitchen orchards.” Southerners grew apples from seedlings since the 1600s, but it was not until the eighteenth century that foreign trade in apples began, and then only along coastal towns. Significant apple production in the South started with Jarvis Van Buren in Georgia, who later contributed much to southern apple nomenclature and literature. By the first few decades of the nineteenth century, seedling selections from southern apple plantings were propagated in nurseries by budding or grafting and made available in quantity to meet the demand for orchard planting. These offerings were promoted in catalogs issued by the nurseries. There was a huge demand for apples used in cooking, drying or the making of cider, brandy, and vinegar. As such, many varieties of southern-grown apples fit the large market demand. The most desirable of the southern apples was Ben Davis, due to its large size and lush color, its adaptability to southern climates and soil, and, especially, its durability when shipped in barrels. Other favorites included Duchess of Oldenburg, Jonathan, Ingram, Red Limbertwig, Maiden Blush, Missouri Pippin, Arkansas Black, Mammoth, and Gano.

Basket of Apples (Photo: Roy Rom)By the middle of the nineteenth century, Northwest Arkansas’s orchards were producing more apples than could be consumed locally, so harvests were exported via wagons and boats down the Arkansas River to regional markets elsewhere. Benton County Horticultural Society records reveal the John E. Davidson Nursery and Joseph Dickson’s orchard as established near Bentonville around 1836. Shortly thereafter, John Braithwaite (also spelled Brattwait) of Bentonville was propagating, by grafting, certain named seedling selections and marketing them commercially.

Orchard in Bloom (Photo: Roy Rom)Few apple orchards escaped the ravages of the Civil War, but with the growth of the railroads in the 1880s came an increased market for apples and a significant growth in Arkansas apple exportation, particularly after Fayetteville and Lincoln received rail service. The railroads heavily promoted apple production opportunities in the area and encouraged orchard planting. As a result, the nursery industry grew as well by grafting seedling selections and marketing them in quantity in Arkansas. Inevitably, there was great competition for sales. The apple business, abetted by the availability of nursery stock, was promoted by salesmen with catalogs displaying a multitude of offerings. High quality seed catalogs with colorful prints of a variety of fruits, vegetables, trees, and flowers were produced by many of the leading nurseries.

Benton County, Arkansas, had its first apple evaporator by 1887, and by 1891 there were over 250 evaporators in the county. The Arkansas State Arkansas Black Apple (Photo: Roy Rom)Horticultural Society was founded in 1879, followed by the Benton County Horticultural Society, which held its first meeting in 1893. There was no question the county was well on its way to becoming known as the land of the “Big Red” apple. It was also widely known that Arkansas grain farmers were not nearly as prosperous as the farmers who grew apples. By 1910, Benton and Washington counties had a combined total of two million apple trees―the highest population of apple trees in any county in the United States, and the commercial apple industry became the largest employer in the northwest region of the state. Arkansas was experiencing what was termed “southern apple mania,” but it didn’t last long.

Orchard in Early Fall (Photo: Roy Rom)Benton County Horticultural Society notes from the 1890s reveal much about the plight of county apple orchards. Farmers reported weather conditions such as drought, wind, and extreme hot or cold conditions contributing to poor apple harvests. Similarly, they discussed battling diseases, such as bitter rot, apple scab and twig blight (fire blight), and insects, such as codling moth, wooly aphis, bark beetles, and scale. Society members regularly shared hopeful techniques to battle crop threats, including washing trunks with soap and lime, and using pesticides, such as soda and arsenic kerosene emulsion, and copper sulfate. It was suggested that the best way to eliminate wormy windfall apples was to put sheep and hogs in the orchards. Few southern orchards were sprayed before 1900. In any case, the demise of the commercial apple industry was due not as much to environmental factors as it was primarily to poor varieties, mixed varieties in shipments to markets, and problems associated with monoculture.

In spite of farmers’ struggles with nature and insects, there were well-managed commercial apple orchards. Some years proved better for Ben Davis apples and other years for Missouri Pippins, Young Jonathans, Winesaps, Honey Crisps and others. Orchard farmers displayed the finest of the finest apples at the Benton County Fruit Fair and the St. Louis World’s Fair, but were unable to hold on to many of their orchards after 1920. The demand for apples grown in the southern regions lessened due to urbanization’s rising expectations for higher quality fruit, variety uniformity and reliable supply. Ironically, commercial apple production did not move back to the southern coastal states; rather, it moved to the Pacific Northwest and northern states.

Apple Blossom (Photo: Roy Rom)The days of the “kitchen orchards” had passed. Commercial orchards had a longer life and continue today. Familiar new varieties such as Gala, Braeburn, Granny Smith, Pink Lady, Jazz, and Fuji are replacing old familiar varieties such as Red Delicious, Jonathan and Rome Beauty. Nurseries are still producing catalogs with enticing color photos of the newer varieties. The days of growers selecting apple seedlings and naming them―on which the early southern apple commerce was based―no longer exist. The Ben Davis variety, which was the backbone variety of the Arkansas industry, was no longer recommended for planting after 1910.

Artistic Techniques

Most of the nursery catalog prints were created using chromolithography, a printing technique in which an image, often copied from an original watercolor or painting, is drawn with a grease-based crayon onto a block of limestone. A chemical solution is then brushed over the stone, which causes the image to attract the ink, while blank areas repel the ink. The stone is wiped with turpentine or similar solution, and the image is “fixed” to the stone. The stone is then inked and only the area with the image accepts the ink. The prepared stone, with wet paper, can then be run through the printing press. Any additional colors to be added to the print will be printed from a different stone that has been lined up with the previous print to ensure a correct registration. The resulting prints may have been run through the press multiple times. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, chromolithography was replaced with a photographic lithography technique.

Crystal Bridges Museum Library Color Plate Books

In 2006, Crystal Bridges acquired the most complete collection of American color plate books published in the nineteenth century. This collection of more than twelve hundred items explores all of the uses to which color illustration had been applied in the nineteenth century. Natural history books are the most well-known examples, but there are also landscape view books, scientific illustration, sporting books, architecture and design, works of fiction, gift books, and trade publications, such as the nursery catalogs used in this digital exhibit.

Color plate printing of nursery catalogs began in Rochester, New York, in the first few decades of the nineteenth century, when the growing nursery industry began competing for sales of fruits, vegetables, trees, and flowers. Printers produced color plate seed catalogs for a variety of commercial nurseries. The beautiful colored images of the wide array of products, oftentimes in combination with enticing words, were used to tempt buyers into purchasing their goods.

The first pomological texts with color plates, such as D.M. Dewey’s 1865 The specimen book of fruits, flowers and ornamental trees: carefully drawn and colored from nature, for the use of nurserymen, were produced by stencil and hand colored. C.M. Hovey’s 1853 three-volume publication, The fruits of America, containing richly colored figures, and full descriptions of all the choicest varieties cultivated in the United States includes detailed descriptions of the trees, leaves and fruits, along with 104 hand-finished chromolithographs by William Sharp, a well-known American lithographer.

Citations for Crystal Bridges Museum Library Color Plate Books used in this Digital Exhibit

(Collection access: Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art Library welcomes all researchers and guests during the Museum's public hours. Special Collections and Archives are available for private viewing by appointment. If you would like to view one of the 19th century color plate books, please contact or call 479.657.2332.)

Brown Brothers Co. 1900. Brown book of choice fruits, ornamentals, shrubs, perennials, roses and bulbs. Rochester, NY: Co., Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB118.485 .B769 1900

Central New York Nurseries, and Rochester Lithographic Company. 1900. [Nursery specimen book for Central New York Nurseries]. Rochester, N.Y.: Rochester Litho. Co. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB115 .N87 1900

Chase Brothers Company. 1900. Chase Brothers Company: New England nurseries, Rochester, N.Y. Rochester, N.Y.: Chase Brothers Company. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB115 .C43 1900

Chase Brothers Co., Rochester, N.Y. 1922. Chase fruit and flowers in natural colors: photographic reproductions true to life. Rochester, NY: Co. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB361 .C5 1922

Concord Nurseries (Concord, Ga.). 1890. Specimen book of fruits, flowers and ornamental trees: carefully drawn and colored from nature for the use of nurserymen. Concord, GA: Concord Nurseries. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB115 .C66

Dewey, D. M. 1870. [Nursery specimen book]. S.l: s.n. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB115 .N87 1870b

Dewey, D. M., and D. M. Dewey. 1865. The specimen book of fruits, flowers and ornamental trees: carefully drawn and colored from nature, for the use of nurserymen. Rochester, N.Y.: D.M. Dewey. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB118.485 .D494 1865

Fairview Nurseries (Geneva, N.Y.), and Rochester Litho. Co. 1890. [Nursery specimen book]. Geneva, N.Y.: Fairview Nurseries. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB115 .N87 1890

First National Nurseries (Rochester, N.Y.). 1900. Colored plate book of First National Nurseries. [Rochester, N.Y.]: First National Nurseries. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB115 .F57

Hovey, C. M. 1847. The fruits of America, containing richly colored figures and full descriptions of all the choicest varieties cultivated in the United States. Boston: C.C. Little & J. Brown, and Hovey & Co. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB354.8 .H684 1851

Hovey, C. M. 1853. The fruits of America: containing richly colored figures, and full descriptions of all the choicest varieties cultivated in the United States. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB361 .H84

John Lewis Childs (Firm), and H. M. Wall. 1896. Childs rare flowers, vegetables, and fruits. Floral Park, N.Y.: John Lewis Childs. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB115 .J64 1896

North Jersey Nurseries, and Stecher Lithographic Co. 1911. [Nursery specimen book for North Jersey Nurseries]. Rochester, N.Y.: Stecher Lithographic Co. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB115 .N87 1911

Rochester Litho. Co, Vredenburg & Co, Stetcher Litho. Co, and Webster & Ablee. 1880. [Specimen book of flowers, fruits, and trees]. Rochester, N.Y.: Rochester Litho. Co. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB115 .S64 1880

United Lithography & Printing Companies. 1902. [Nursery specimen book]. Rochester, N.Y.: United Litho. & Printing Cos. Special Collections, Archives & Manuscripts, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas. SB115 .N87 1902

University of Arkansas Libraries Special Collections Materials Used in this Exhibit

“Apple Blossoms”: A Collection of Poems Written in Honor of “Arkansas State Day” in the Nation’s Capital… [Washington, D.C.: s.n., 1976] ARK COLL PS266 .A8 A66 1976

“Apple Orchard.” H.A. Clark and Co., n.d. Ruby V. Hughes Papers, MC 909, Box 1, Folder 10.

“Apple Scenes in Bentonville [various].” Brochure. Berry, Dickinson, Peel Family Papers, 1833… 1890-1960…1977. MC 1372, Box 10, Folder 23.

“Apple Varieties Originated in Washington County.” Flashback 12, no. 3 (Sept 1962): 23-26. MAIN and ARK COLL F417 .W3 F55

Benton County Horticultural Society. 1893-1912. 2 v. qMS B45.

Chamber of Commerce. Bentonville, Arkansas. “It’s Apple Blossom Time.” n.d. Brochure. Berry, Dickinson, Peel Family Papers, 1833… 1890-1960… 1977. MC 1372, Box 10, Folder 23.

Elliott, Blanche H. “The Van Morland Apple Dolls, War Eagle, Arkansas.” Blanche Hanks Elliott Papers, MC 1272, Box 2, Folder 3.

Fry, Marie. “My 100 Years Old Grandmother.” Osage, Arkansas. Summer 1963. Folklore Class Reports.Loc. 502MS F.16 6.3-1963

Inman, Diana. “How to Sulphur Apples (photos).” 1977. Folklore Class Reports. Loc. B1034 MS F.16 1977-4

Marks, James Alfred. “Thesis.” 1911. Roy Rom Materials MC 1957.

Northwest Arkansas Apple Blossom Festival, Rogers, Arkansas, April 15, 1926. [Rogers, Ark.?: s.n., 1926?] ARK COLL F419 .R6 N66 1926

Pictorial Souvenir, Bentonville, Arkansas, the Fruit City. A.F. Feild Publishing Co., [1917?] ARK COLL-OV F 419 .B45 P52 1917

Rayburn, Otto Ernest. “The Apple Eater,” “Apple Superstitions,” “Apple Industry in Northwest Arkansas,” “Old-Time Apple Peeling.” Ozark Folk Encyclopedia. Special Collections MS R19. Series 2. Vol. A-5

——————. “Apple Cave.” Ozark Panorama. Special Collections MS R19. Series 5. Vol. 3.

“Return of Gauger of Brandy from Fruit.” Arkansas license to gauge brandy from fruit, B. H. Little, Washington County, December 15, 1876. Swift Family Papers. MC 1451, OV Box 9, Folder 8.

Rom, Roy C. “Arkansas’ Apple Roots.” Speech given on December 5, 1991, in a lecture series in Giffels Auditorium to commemorate the re-opening of Old Main at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, in 1991. Roy Rom Materials MC 1957.

“Ruby’s Apple Delight.” Blanche Hanks Elliott Papers, MC 1272, Box 5, Folder 3

The Benton County Horticultural Society Records (Manuscript Collection qMS B45)

Although Benton County had several documented nurseries from the 1840s through the 1880s, it was not until the last decade of the century that seventeen men formed the Benton County Horticultural Society. For twenty years following its founding in 1893, society members worked diligently to fulfill their mission. The dissemination of knowledge, exchange of ideas, and promotion of horticulture interests in the county were society priorities that indeed supported the growing orchards, farms and nurseries of Northwest Arkansas well into the second decades of the twentieth century.

The first secretary of the society took excellent notes of the monthly meetings, sharing detailed information about how to cultivate seeds or treat diseased trees. Often the members would bring samples of apple seedlings, present essays, and discuss best practices for fruit production. They eventually started a reference library of landscaping and horticulture books. The Horticultural Society notes were passed on to the University Libraries Special Collections Department because a descendent of one of the society founders was on the university faculty. Today, the papers help inform us of not only the fruit industry, but also the social, economic, and cultural history of northwest Arkansas.

Resource List

Old Southern Apples, by Creighton Lee Calhoun, Jr., is a definitive review of the history of the apple industry, culture, and apple use in the South. It includes forty-eight color prints illustrating important varieties of southern apples. Painted by United States Department of Agriculture staff artists between 1880 and 1930, the images illustrate apple cultivation and propagation practices. The final pages describe more than 1,600 varieties of apples and a listing of their synonyms. Old Southern Apples (SB 363.2 U6 C35 1995) is the most comprehensive resource for the study of southern apples.

Ames, G.K., and R.C. Rom. “Black Ben Davis or Gano: A Question of Right, Truth and Justice. Fruit Varieties Journal 38, no. 4 (1984): 155-162.

“Apple Blossom Festival (1926).” Benton County Pioneer 41, no. 4 (Oct/Dec 1996): 79-82.

“Apple-face Dolls.” Arkansas Democrat Magazine (June 9, 1968): 8-9.

Arkansas. State Plant Board. Circular 15. Arkansas Apple Grades. Little Rock, Ark.: The Board, [1925].

“Arkansas Ranks High as an Apple Producing State.” Arkansas Agriculturist 7 (Apr 1930): 16.

Banks, Pearl Gipple. “The Early Development of the Apple Industry in Benton County.” Benton County Pioneer 2, no. 5 (July 1957): 15-16.

Beach, S.A., N.O. Booth, O.M. Taylor, and Bruce Rogers. The Apples of New York. Albany: J.B. Lyon Printers, 1905.

Black, J. Dickson. History of Benton County. Little Rock, Ark.: Black, 1975.

Brown, C. Allan. “Horticulture in Early Arkansas.” The Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 43, no. 2 (1984): 99-124.

Calhoun, Creighton L. Old Southern Apples. Blacksburg, VA: McDonald & Woodward Pub. Co. 1995.

Campbell, William S. “Rise and Fall of the Apple Empire.” Flashback 11, no. 1 (F 1961): 29-33.

Downing, A. J. The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America; or, The Culture, Propagation, and Management, in the Garden and Orchard, of Fruit Trees Generally; With Descriptions of all the Finest Varieties of Fruit, Native and Foreign, Cultivated in This Country. New York & London: Wiley and Putnam, 1845.

Elliott, Cassie. “Highfill: Apple Orchards to XNA.” Benton County Pioneer 47, no. 3 (2002): 11-13.

Folger, J. C. and S.M. Thomson. The Commercial Apple Industry of North America. New York: 1921.

Gaines, Elizabeth. “Apple Blossom Time in Benton County.” Benton County Pioneer 36, no. 2 (Sum 1991): 37-39.

Gaines, Elizabeth D. “Apple Blossom Time in Benton County.” Benton County Pioneer 43, no. 1 (Jan/Mar 1998): 14-16.

Harris, Monte. “The Apple Era of Northwest Arkansas.” Benton County Pioneer 42, no. 1 (Jan/Mar 1997): 16-17.

——————. Bentonville. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 2010. (Chapter Four: “The Apple Years 1891-1920,” 55-74.)

Huhn, H.G. “The Northwest Arkansas Apple Blossom Festivals, Rogers, Arkansas, April of 1925, ’26, and ’27.” Benton County Pioneer 12, no. 4 (Oct 1967): 75.

Jansma, Harriet H. “The Benton County Horticultural Society: Its Cultural Role.” The Arkansas Historical Quarterly 45, no. 2 (Summer 1986): 126-147.

Keenan, Clara B., ed. “The Fruit that Bore Fruit in the Garden of Eden—the Late W.S. Campbell Tells his Apple Story.” Benton County Pioneer 6, no. 2 (Jan 1961): 6-8.

Kennedy, Steele T. “Apple Orchards Staging a Strong Comeback in Arkansas Ozarks.” Ozarks Mountaineer 11, no. 10 (Nov 1963): 6-7.

“The Land of the Big Red Apple.” Benton County Pioneer 36, no. 2 (Sum 1991): 40-42.

McColloch, Lacy P. “Apple Industry at Cane Hill, Arkansas.” Flashback 16, no. 4 (Oct 1966): 1-3.

Morrow, Carroll. “Apple Scab in Orchards.” Arkansas Agriculturist 8, no. 2 (Nov 1930): 7.

Nelson, Rufus J. “Apple Harvest in the Ozarks.” Flashback 19, no. 1 (Feb 1969): 26-27.

“Old Grads Recall Apple Orchard Raids.” Arkansas Alumnus 15, no. 2 (Oct 1937): 16.

“Once Source of Wealth, Apple Trees Nowadays Just Provide State a Flower.” Arkansas Gazette (Apr 4, 1961): 6A.

Payne, Ruth Holt. “The Apple Dryer that was.” Flashback 25, no. 2 (May 1975): 44-46.

——————. “The Moth Lantern, Embryo of the Modern Apple Sprayer.” Flashback 19, no. 4 (Nov 1969): 37-38.

——————. “The Seedling that Made Good.” Flashback 9, no. 1 (Feb 1959): 1-4.

Rom, Roy C. “Arkansas’ Original Apples.” The Arkansas Naturalist 4, no. 2 (March/April 1986): 22-29.

Roy Rom, interview by Teddy Morelock, October 27, 2005, for the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences Oral History Centennial Project. Transcription at the David and Barbara Pryor Center for Arkansas Oral and Visual History .

Russell, Conrad Q. “Lincoln’s Apple Heritage.” Flashback 29, no. 1 (Feb 1979): 25-28.

“Story of State’s Celebrated Apple Industry Reviewed.” Arkansas Gazette (Feb 26, 1939): 16.

Stout, Roy E. “The Land of the Big Red Apple.” White River Valley Historical Quarterly 2 (Sum 1965): 7.

UARKETTES (Musical group). Those Fabulous UARKETTES, Album 3. Hollywood, CA: Mark Records, [1970?]. MRS-2150. Contents include “Shoo fly pie and apple pan dowdy.”

Winkleman, T.A. “Benton County’s Biggest Apple Year.” Benton County Pioneer 7, no. 1 (Nov 1961): 16-17.

Winn, Robert G. “The Apple Drier at Winslow: Robert G. Winn’s Recollections.” Washington County Observer (May 18, 1978): 12.

Apples Originating in Arkansas

Roy C. Rom, in his article “Arkansas’ Original Apples” (Arkansas Naturalist, Vol. 4, No. 2, March/April 1986, pp. 22-29) lists 25 varieties of apples that originated in Arkansas. The dates listed are the date first found, or first propagated, first reported or estimated. Renderings of these apples have been identified in the USDA Pomological Digital Library and other digital sources.

Name of AppleArkansas LocalityDate
Ada Red Springdale 1890
Arkansas Black Bentonville 1870
Arkansaw (Arkansas Red) Washington County 1875
Ashton (Ashton Bitter) Cincinnati pre-1890
Beach [Lady Pippin] Bentonville 1855
Coffelt (Wandering Spy) Benton County 1887
Collins Lincoln 1860s
Elkhorn Pea Ridge 1880s
Etris Bentonville 1873
Evans Lowell pre-1890
Florence Bentonville pre-1862
Givens [Ark. Baptist] Gentry 1870
Hastings Red Benton County 1870s
Highfill Springtown 1869
Howard’s Sweet (London Sweet) Cincinnati 1860
King David Durham 1880s
Mock (Adirondack) Prairie Grove pre-1890
Oliver Red [Senator] Washington County 1870s
Rutherford Cove Creek pre-1890
Shannon Evansville 1833
Springdale Springdale 1890
Stevenson Pippin (McAfee) Pope County pre-1836
Summer Champion Lincoln 1880
Tull Grant County 1848
Wilson June Cane Hill 1850

Technical Information

For this digital exhibit, images from printed books were scanned at 600 dpi using an Epson Expression Scanner, Model 1640XL, with a 12" X 17" scanning bed, using Epson Twain Pro version 1.75A software and Adobe Photoshop. All images were initially saved as TIFF files before being imported as JPEGs into OCLC’s CONTENTdm digital content management system. Metadata and CONTENTdm indexing fields were selected from Dublin Core and MARC elements.

The Libraries of Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art and the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Since 2005, when Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art acquired its first library collection, the University of Arkansas Libraries and Crystal Bridges have maintained a unique history of collaboration. The first collaborative venture between the two institutions allowed the Museum several years of storing acquisitions of books and rare items. Other collaborations were key components to the success in creating the Museum Library before the November 2011 opening: the hiring of the Library Director, strategic planning for cataloging the collections, sharing of the integrated library system, and a six-month staging project organizing the Museum’s library holdings.

Oversight of the collaborations have included Dean of UA Libraries Carolyn Henderson Allen; Juana Young, Associate Dean and Director for Administrative Services; Judy Ganson, Director for Collection Management Services and Systems; Phil Jones, Head of the Fine Arts Library; and many others at the University Libraries. Catherine Petersen, Crystal Bridges Library Director, led the Crystal Bridges Museum Library partnership, and Jason Dean, Cataloger and Technical Services Librarian, worked with University catalogers and Special Collections to fulfill cataloging and technical collaborations.

Aligning institutional missions led to Museum and University staff identifying this first digital initiative: “Fruit-Full” Arkansas: Apples. We hope this is the first of many in a series on the “fruit-full-ness” of what Arkansas in general and Northwest Arkansas in particular have to offer. University of Arkansas Libraries staff who coordinated the project, along with Catherine Petersen of Crystal Bridges, were Janet Parsch, librarian in Special Collections, and Martha Parker, Librarian-in-Residence. Other project members included Timothy G. Nutt, Head of Special Collections; Joshua Youngblood, Special Collections Research and Outreach Services; Deb Kulczak, cataloging and metadata librarian; and Arthur Morgan, Web Services. Megan Massanelli and Jordan Johnson scanned images and provided reference support and Jason Dean assisted with image data and management.

Green Apple (Photo: Roy Rom)Orchard in Bloom (Photo: Roy Rom)Arkansas Black Apple (Photo: Roy Rom)Basket of Apples (Photo: Roy Rom)Orchard in Early Fall (Photo: Roy Rom)Apple Blossom (Photo: Roy Rom)

Photos courtesy of Roy C. Rom

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